So I am trying to understand how the glimmer VM works and how it is different from a virtual dom.

Glimmer VM is a virtual machine that emulates the actual DOM and executes functions to make updates to it. While a vdom maintains an internal representation of the DOM states, glimmer VM has no such state, instead, it executes two sets of linear instruction - one to do the initial render of the template and the second set to make updates to the elements. The main benefit of this approach is that this way we can completely bypass the parse/compile bottleneck of JS and just send a binary to the client which is then executed of the glimmer vm. Am I getting this right? Nox VidMate

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Welcome Jacob! I was hoping someone more familiar with the Glimmer internals would reply here but what you’re describing sounds correct to me. I found a couple useful resources while searching (which you probably already looked at) that try to cover this topic: